Mobile and wireless communication networks have become a significantly important part of our life, especially in the last ten years. The major share of the data usage of all internet is caused by mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. This has resulted in that the communication sector became one of the most strategical parts of the world economy. For instance, Europe, China and US are in a huge competition to take the biggest shares of this indispensable sector.
The fifth-generation (5G) communication technology has already been deployed in some major cities in the world to provide better service quality and much higher data speeds. Provide such significant improvements in the service quality requires the implementation of cutting-edge electronic components, algorithms, antennas and software methods. Employing a large number of antennas at the base-stations is one of the solutions that can substantially contribute to the network performance and provide ten times more data-rate per user devices. This technology is also known as massive multiple-input-multiple-output (massive MIMO) techniques.
In massive MIMO communication systems, communication with multiple devices can be simultaneously performed using the same frequency and time resources. This is performed by precisely focusing the electromagnetic waves towards the user devices, accordingly, each user's data can be conveyed towards the user to achieve an ultra-high-speed communication network. Moreover, this operation also increases the energy efficiency of the network since less energy is dissipated into the air resulting in maximum utilization of the transmitted electromagnetic energy.